Virginie Guiraudon (Science Po Paris)
"EU borders policies and its effects on migrants"
The “state monopolization of the legitimate control of movement” to use John Torpey’s phrase is a recent phenomenon, that can be dated back to the nineteenth century in Europe. Since the 1990s, scholars have sought to analyze the shift of policy-making to supranational venues such as Schengen and later to the EU, the enlisting of non-state actors such as transport and security companies, and third countries South of the Mediterranean. As “remote control” policies failed, some migrants did make it to the EU border and their encampment have also involved city-level actors, notably in Italy but also in Northern France. This particular moment in time can be described as a case of transnational governance of mobility. Beyond trying to explain or characterize the current contours of the immigration policy field in Europe, this presentation will focus on its effects on migrant “careers”, their trajectories and “coping” strategies. Moving across international borders is rarely an individual endeavor and involves transnational communities, migration merchants, and ultimately local actors that help newcomers “meet” the state. Studying policy impact is a conceptual and empirical challenge. Building on the theoretical tools of the literature on policy implementation and on US studies that have hindsight on the consequences of the irregularization of migration, Virginie Guiraudon will present an analytical framework and initial data on the effects of EU bordering policies for migrants and migrant communities.